The 4Ps of aligning pedagogy and space framework
The 4Ps of aligning pedagogy and space framework extends the conceptual framework advanced by Becker et al. (2015) which was built on the ‘purpose-process-place’ framework of Duffy et al. (2011). This extension (see Figure) proposes purpose-process-place-product to refer to the ‘why, how, where and what for’ in a specific context of the ‘what’ in education. The 4Ps framework posits that spatial arrangements and adjacencies (place) must be deployed in such a way that teaching and learning practices (processes) can contribute to enhance educational the goals (purpose) to improve student learning and outcomes (product).