The 4Ps of aligning pedagogy and space framework
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The 4Ps of aligning pedagogy and space framework extends the conceptual framework advanced by Becker et al. (2015) which was built on the ‘purpose-process-place’ framework of Duffy et al. (2011). This extension (see Figure) proposes purpose-process-place-product to refer to the ‘why, how, where and what for’ in a specific context of the ‘what’ in education. The 4Ps framework posits that spatial arrangements and adjacencies (place) must be deployed in such a way that teaching and learning practices (processes) can contribute to enhance educational the goals (purpose) to improve student learning and outcomes (product).