EPiC database - Sand

This material is part of the free Environmental Performance in Construction (EPiC) Database. The EPiC Database contains embodied environmental flow coefficients for 250+ construction materials using a comprehensive hybrid life cycle inventory approach.

Sand is comprised of small particles of quartz (silica), feldspar and calcium carbonate from various forms of life that have been eroded down over thousands of years. It is strong, durable, chemically inert and has excellent drainage characteristics.

It is commonly extracted through open pit mining and is available in many different grades and levels of purity. Due to the extended period of time required to create sand, it is considered a non-renewable resource.

Sand can be used as a substrate for footings, pathways, and concrete slabs. It is also used as an additive in concrete, mortar, asphalt, and various exterior finishes. It is one of the primary materials used in the production of silicon for various construction products.

Keyword(s)

Embodied energy Embodied carbon Embodied greenhouse gas emissions Embodied water Input-output analysis Construction Building Materials Environmental performance Life cycle assessment LCA Database Process analysis Australia Hybrid analysis Life cycle inventory LCI Concrete block Cement mortar Portland cement Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) Concrete 20 MPa Concrete 25 MPa Concrete 32 MPa Concrete 40 MPa Concrete 50 MPa Fibre cement sheet Fibre cement weatherboard Gypsum plaster Plasterboard - 10 mm Concrete roof tile Flat glass Double glazing - flat glass Laminated glass Toughened glass Double glazing - toughened glass Cellulose insulation Aluminium foil insulation Glasswool insulation Rockwool insulation Polystyrene (EPS/XPS) insulation Polyurethane (PU) rigid foam insulation Aluminium bar Aluminium composite panel Aluminium extruded Aluminium sheet Copper sheet Copper pipe Copper wire Cold rolled stainless steel Stainless steel extruded Stainless steel sheet Stainless steel wire Cold rolled steel Hot rolled galvanised structural steel Hot rolled structural steel Steel bar Steel hollow section extruded Steel pipe Steel sheet corrugated Asphalt Nylon carpet Wool carpet Silicone Water Wood glue (PVA) Solar hot water system Solvent-based paint Water-based paint Wallpaper Natural rubber Synthetic rubber High-density polyethylene (HDPE) film High-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pipe Nylon 66 Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) Linoleum Polycarbonate Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) Polypropylene (PP) sheet Polyurethane (PU) flexible foam Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) Clay brick Gravel Recycled aggregate Sand

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