EPiC database - Portland cement

This material is part of the free Environmental Performance in Construction (EPiC) Database. The EPiC Database contains embodied environmental flow coefficients for 250+ construction materials using a comprehensive hybrid life cycle inventory approach.

Portland cement (also known as common or general-purpose cement) is manufactured from limestone, clay and gypsum. A range of additional minerals or additives can be added to control the properties of the finished cement.

Limestone and other raw materials are heated at over 1 000°C to produce clinker. The clinker is then mixed with gypsum and ground into a fine powder to produce Portland cement.

Portland cement is typically used as a binder for concrete and cement-based products, such as fibre cement sheet and cement mortar. When mixed with water it forms a workable slurry that undergoes a process known as hydration, setting within a few hours and forming its final hardened state within weeks.